Jund And Analytical Psychology

Psychology of C. G. Jung is expression of his inner development. Personal experiences, dreams, memories and reflections serve as a base for his scientific research into a human mind and the ways it works.

Jung gives the psyche more complex meaning than soul and uses it to describe all psychic processes that can be divided into conscious and unconscious. Human ego is operating on these two levels with consciousness constituting only small part of the psyche. Unconscious dominates this model including all of the elements we are not consciously aware of and those that were repressed, forgotten or sublimated. Ego being a subject of consciousness is focused on adaptation to the world.

Individual unconscious is called by Jung personal as an opposite to collective unconscious that is the function of inherited brain structure. The unconscious is primal factor on which conscious is build on. Jung understands conscious as a dynamic force, synthesis of functions: thinking, intuition, feeling and sensation. All those functions remain the same irrespective of circumstances. Thinking and feeling are classified as rational because of their qualities of judging and evaluating. Since intuition and sensation operate on perceptions that are not evaluated or judged they are classified as irrational.

All of those functions are present in individual with one becoming dominant in the course of time. The type of dominant function is directly linked to the type of personality attributes to specific type of behaviour and habits. Superior function tend to be in conscious whilst its opposite called by Jung inferior part is placed in unconscious. Two remaining parts belong partly to conscious and partly to unconscious. In a case of neurotic person correlation between attributes are distorted and changed by compulsion or training.

Altogether four functions symbolize wholeness and in theory all of them can be raised to conscious level to constitute a complete individual. Since no one can apprehend entirely his unconscious an individual can only progress towards this ideal never achieving it. The main aim of analysis is to make this process as sufficient as possible enabling person to apprehend unconscious content intellectually and discover its potentiality with the help of intuition.

Whatever the type of function based on unconscious level its main feature is unreliability. It represents archaic and basic element of psychological set up. Whole personality is not only expressed by a mixture of functions with one dominating the rest but also by general attitude.

There are two main attitudes: extraversion and introversion dynamising the entire psychic and determining subject’s response to the inner and outer reality. Extravertical personality is motivated positively by external environment. This type is characterized as  px7 primal flow reviews well adjust, influenced by collective norms, orientated towards external world and motivated by object. The introvert is described as not adequately adjusted, motivated by internal psychic process and orientated towards a subject.

Though the type of attitude is determined by biology it can be modified or changed by reconstructing of the psyche. That can be achieved by triggering biological factor or through analysis.

When the obstruction of the flow of energy happens we are dealing with symptom. Symptoms are expressed on conscious level and indicate some inadequacy in attitude. Other phenomena visible on the same level are complexes. Complexes are psychic elements that separated form conscious and continue its existence beyond of control of individual. Complex can be very powerful factor, its intensity exceeding conscious intentions but also dynamic element motivating a change.

When collective unconscious is concerned Jung introduces the idea of archetypes. Archetypes (mythological elements, visions and symbols) are product of mankind’s history and influence lives of individuals. The archetype can be expressed in a form of primordial image (static form) or as a differentiation of function of consciousness (dynamic process). The archetypes are symbols of instinctive reaction towards outer world and as such are psychologically necessary. They can be described as inherited pattern of psychic behaviour. There is more to it than biological factor – archetype can be fundamental experience of numinous.

The psychic energy is called by Jung libido. This term expresses dynamic and intensity of the psychic processes such as: drives, wishes and will. On the whole the psychic processes are expressed according to the law of opposition that ensure balance, harmony and totality of the psyche. One process is replaced by another, flow into another – the low of conservation of energy is maintained through the life. Psychic energy (libido) can cause neurosis and complexes. The energy has also a direction and can make progressive and regressive movement. Progressive movement is expressed by adequately adjusting to the world, whilst regressive movement is a result of failure to adapt. Those two forms of movement are not only opposition but also positive values necessary to healthy development. The energy can also be directed inward (introversion) or outward (extraversion) and can differ in its intensity.

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